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Thich Nhat Hanh- Intimate conversation with Mother Earth

Dear Mother, you are our planet, mother of all species, including us humans. Your children are in the thousands and each has its own language. Because you are the mother of all of us, you understand all languages, including ours. Therefore, it is always possible, easy and pleasant to talk and pray to you intimately.

You are the blue planet, the Boddhisattva of the Pure, Fresh Earth

Dear Mother, I bow to you filled with deep respect, fully aware that you are present in me and that I am a part of you. You brought me into the world, you provide me with everything I need to feed me. You give me air to breathe, water to drink, food to eat and medicinal herbs to take care of myself when I am sick.

Because you gave me birth once, I know that you will give me a thousand other times and I will never die. With each appearance I become brand new, each time I return to you, Mother, you stretch out two compassionate arms to welcome me.

You are the Great Earth, You are Terra, you are Gaia, you are the blue planet, you are the Boddhisattva of the pure, fresh Earth. You are very fragrant, very refreshing, you are very beautiful. You are able to receive, protect and change everything, even smelly slime, poisonous gases and radiation. You take all the time, even millions of years, if necessary.

You have numerous children, in thousands of species, including human beings. There are among us, blinded by greed, arrogance, ignorance, who have not recognized you as a mother. They have provoked many disasters and destroyed your health, your beauty. I know you have enough strength to embrace and transform us all our mistakes. But our ignorance continues to drive us to exploit you and cause conflict. Sometimes we make you tired.

the earth
sometimes we make you tired

Mother, your patience and your immeasurable stamina has made you a great boddhisattva, a most reliable refuge for all of us. Whenever we are out of balance, lost in carelessness, sadness, hatred or despair, we feel the need to return to you and practice touching the earth. We take refuge in you to find peace, joy of life and self-confidence again. We know that we are all your children.

And even if we have made many mistakes, you always forgive us and every time we return to you, you are always ready to take us into your loving motherly arms. We have the nature of no-birth and no-dying because of you. You hold in your heart enormous treasures of energy, we promise to put them to good use so as not to let them die out. That way you wouldn’t need millions of years to restore them with great diligence and patience.

You are the Mother of all Buddhas

budaOur first teacher, the Buddha Sakyamuni, is your child, as are the boddhisattva Avalokita, Maia, the Mother of Jesus, the matriarch Lieu Hanh, as well as Sadaparibhuta, the boddhisattva of Great Respect and Ksitigarbha, the boddhisattva of the `great Aspiration . .Our parents are your children too.

Several of your children have been raised and nurtured by you over several lifetimes and have become boddhisattvas, able to teach, help the world and protect you. Many boddhisattvas are reconnecting with you, trying to understand you and help you maintain your relationship with other planets of our solar system and with other star systems in the Universe.

In particular, you have been able to establish a harmonious connection with the Sun and Moon and interact with them regularly to regulate the cycle of day and night and the four seasons. We are aware that you are one of the most beautiful and one of the most special boddhisattvas in the Universe. We recognize your very great patience and your very great perseverance. We have true faith in you and from all our hearts we take refuge in you.

You emerged over 4.5 billion years ago and waited 3.5 billion years to bring us into the world and become a beautiful planet, full of life as we see it today. Life has begun in the depths of the ocean, it has multiplied profusely and spread throughout your body.

Slowly it has changed the atmosphere and allowed so many new forms to emerge. One billion years later, the oxygen in the atmosphere has increased and the layer has created ozone. It prevents the harmful rays of the sun from reaching your surface and thus allows life to multiply.

During the first billions of years you went through difficult periods to create the atmosphere. You’ve had to subdue the blazing magma, spew out the fires from the volcanoes. During that process, vapor has been released from your earth’s crust, which has caused the densification in the atmosphere.

This, along with the water and ice from minor planets and comets that came into contact with you, helped create the ocean. The greenhouse gases have retained the heat of the Sun, warmed you up and prevented the oceans from freezing. Your gravity and your magnetic field prevented the atmosphere from being swept away by the solar storms and cosmic rays. Thanks to all this, life has been able to reproduce.

But even before the atmosphere was formed, you had to suffer the massive impact of a planet the size of Mars called Théia. Part of this mass has remained attached to you and another part has been ripped off along with some of your body and has brought about the birth of another celestial body called the Moon.

Dear Mother, the Moon, as beautiful as a fairy, is a part of you. She’s our Aunt Moon. She always follows you, she clings to your skirt, she brakes you, she stabilizes you and causes morning and evening, the tides on your body.

Our Father, the Sun, is in you and in us

the sun

Dear Mother, I know that you always need our Father to bring us into the world and to nourish us. Our Father is the Sun.

You follow him and you orbit him in 365 days, in a cycle of four seasons, making up a year of 12 months. The light emitted by Vader warms you, enables the photosynthesis of the plants and helps you make life possible for us.

You are formed by a star nebula, emanating from Vader. Its diameter is 109 times larger than yours. Its light takes 8 minutes to reach you, while the distance between you is even 150 million kilometers.

Noble Mother, every time I look at you, I see Father in you and in me. My Father is not only in heaven but also on earth, present in you and in me. Every morning, Vader appears in the east, as a brilliant orange-colored disc. Its light, radiant and majestic, radiates in all directions, in an indescribable way.

My Father is the Sun, he is Sol, he is Surya and he is Sunna. Father is a great buddha, a great boddhisattva, he is the Tathagata Gote Sun, he is Amitabha, the Buddha of Light and Persistence of Infinite Life, he is the god Sun. Vader’s body is much bigger than yours. Although he has a good heart, with a great capacity for love, he is very strong, courageous and also cruel. Its radiation can reach more than one million degrees Celsius.

My father is part of a small number of the Milky Way’s biggest stars. 85% of the galaxy’s stars shine less than him. Though its mass is gigantic and 330,000 times greater than yours, it is also getting smaller. For every second, Vader offers a portion of this mass to the world in the form of light energy. Life develops on your body thanks to your ability to receive this light energy and thanks to photosynthesis.

Although the time of my father’s life is unlimited, it is not permanent either. There will come a day when all of its gigantic mass is totally transformed into energy. His present form will then no longer be there, but with the released energy he will manifest in other forms.

But this day is still a long way off, at least another ten billion years. The rays it emits are its survival and that energy will never be lost, not even a single particle of light. Thus my father’s life is truly infinite.

We are part of the solar family

Reputable Mother, we have learned that our Father Sun is one of the largest and most brilliant stars among the 200 billion stars of the Milky Way. Vader’s solar system revolves in this galaxy and our Sun is a Buddha, surrounded by a collection of planets. You are the most beautiful of the four planets orbiting the sun. Mercury is the closest planet to our Father, then comes Venus, then you Mother, and finally Mars.

Between Mars and Jupiter is a belt of millions of steroids. Among them is Ceres, the largest of them all at about 1000 km in diameter and several others with about a kilometer in diameter. Others, much smaller, number in the tens of thousands, and then there are others still smaller, smaller than grains of grit.

Jupiter is about 900 million kilometers from our Father Sun. It is surrounded by 64 satellites. Among them, Europa, with its dense layer of ice several kilometers long, including a liquid that could harbor life forms, and Ganymede, the largest satellite in the solar system, larger than Mercury. Jupiter is 318 times your size, Mother.

It consists for the most part of hydrogen and helium, like the Sun. After Jupiter comes Saturn, less massive, but about a hundred times your size, Mother. 62 Satellites also revolve around her. Among them, Titan, the solar system’s third largest satellite after Ganimedes, is three times the size of the Moon. After Saturn, there are Uranus and Neptune, the last two satellites of the solar system.

the moon and jupiter

We have often seen that we all have a heart. If that stops knocking, we die instantly. When we open our eyes we see that the Sun is also a heart, not in our small body, but in the large body of the Milky Way.

If our Father were to disappear, our life would end and yours, Mother. So we often think about the Sun Heart to recognize our Father’s abiding presence within and outside us, to understand that inner and outer are only concepts.

The embrace of Vader is can do a lot. We know that if he takes us in his arms, you will become Mother and we, your children, ashes and powder, gas and vapors. Dear Mother, you know how to take care of us. You have protected living beings, your children, by making oxygen through photosynthesis and by forming an ozone layer to filter the ultraviolet radiation.

That birds are still lucky enough to fly in the vast sky, that the deer can still roam in the forest, is thanks to your ability to envelop and protect. You have received and used Vader’s energy in your clever way to nourish all your children and make you more and more beautiful for billions of years. We know that your future and ours depend on the future of Father Sun.

Some of your children see that Vader travels from east to west every day. So they believe that his residence, his kingdom, is in the west. But we have seen, like you, Mother, that this is only an appearance. Father is everywhere.

On this side of the earth we see it in the west, but on the other side in the east. The Buddha makes no difference between south or north, inside and outside. Our father is up in heaven, but at the same time he is in us and in you, Mother. Since we both recognize you in ourselves, we don’t have to look for you anymore.

From the light of Vader you created life and you adorned yourself with a beautiful blue dress

Dear Mother, you probably remember that you were not yet wearing your light and fresh dress of today, when you arose from a great cloud of dust and gas that Father left behind. So your dress was made from a burning liquid mass.

Little by little, thanks to the water condensing in the atmosphere, your body has cooled and a solid crust has formed about five billion years ago. The heat of the sun’s rays was 30% less than today. But the greenhouse gases and its light have raised the temperature of your surface, they have warmed you and thus prevented the oceans from freezing.

Dear Mother, about four billion years ago the atoms probably came from outer space. They managed to connect with each other to create the first molecules and macromolecules. The latter gradually became living cells, the foundations upon which you began to generate life. The dust particles from stars millions of light years away have visited you and stayed with you. Little by little, cells have clumped together, resulting in large cells.

The unicellular have thus gradually evolved into multicellular organisms. Life has spread from the water to the earth and now you have a beautiful green dress. However, because impermanence is the nature of all things, the life on your body has been destroyed more than five times in vast areas.

The most recent event, 65 million years ago, happened to you unexpectedly when a meteorite smashed into your body, causing the extinction of dinosaurs and other giant reptiles. But several smaller species, such as mammals, survived. The latter have subsequently multiplied and are divided into a large number of other species.


Only a few million years ago did the forerunners of the human species appear in the form of great apes such as the orrorin tugenensis, which was able to stand up and thus have two arms free.

From then on he learned to use tools and means of communication, which resulted in the development of his brain and his evolution into a human being. With the development of agriculture and civilization, humanity acquired abilities that no species on Earth had previously possessed.

Although he can become extremely violent, as well as vicious, if he follows a spiritual practice, he can become a great being, a saint, a boddhisattva, or a buddha. He can love and help not only his own kind, but also other kinds, protecting you and preserving your beauty, Mother.

You are our true home, where we can retrace our steps

Noble Mother, you are present in every place on earth. You brought us into the world, you carry us and you feed us. If we cultivate our full consciousness that we are always in you and you are always in us, then we will always, Mother and children, be well healthy, peaceful, happy and firm. But some of us don’t have that awareness.

We often lose ourselves in negligence, unable to see that our own body is yours too. While we are completely lost in our distracted thoughts or in the world of illusions, we forget that you have given us an amazing body.

We promise to walk mindfully every day, fully aware that we are putting our feet on you. And with every step we can connect with you, with the beautiful things of life that manifest on your body. We know that walking that can nourish us, restore us, and take us into the present moment so that we can stay in touch with you.

You are the Pure Earth, upon which innumerable Buddhas and Bodhisatvas were born, awakened and served. There is no need for us to seek a Pure Earth or a Kingdom of God elsewhere or in the future. You are a beautiful and wonderful Kingdom of God. You are our true home to which we can return with every step. We don’t want to dream about another Kingdom of God or another paradise.

moon_Jupiter_12-25-2012Our Teacher is your child. He has awakened at the foot of the bodhi tree. He has accepted this planet as his native soil and has chosen no other heaven.

We want to continue his work, we promise to live with you, existence after existence, to help you develop your talents and your health, to give birth to numerous boddhisattvas born on your soil.

Some people don’t think the right way. They think that the kingdom of God and this world of suffering are two different worlds and advise us to reject our world and hope to be born again in the kingdom of God. T

hey do not know that if our hearts are pure and full of love, if we have the power to turn compost into flowers, the lotus can grow from mud, then our suffering is the Awakening and this world is the Kingdom of God itself .

According to our view, this world is that of the suffering or kingdom of God. Any appearance on your body, Mother, like a passing cloud or a whirling leaf, is enough to show us the nature of non-birth and non-death in the reality of things.

Roraima, Venezuela

Noble Mother, some of us are still wondering where we will be after your body perishes. We are sure we will return to you, that’s for sure. If we know how to contemplate and look deeply, we recognize the nature of not coming, not going of everything. And then we stop asking ourselves to know where we’re going.

We will then have no more worries, nor fear. You have allowed us to manifest from you and you will continue to do so into the future. With each manifestation we become completely fresh and new.

Every time I sit quietly on you, my Mother Earth, aware that you are in me, I hope to gain your great qualities: patience, endurance, honesty, trustworthiness, no fear, great courage, infinite creativity. We promise to practice with all our hearts to attain these qualities, knowing that you have nown all these good seeds in our consciousness.

All your children are beautiful and have contributed to make you more beautiful. A clear lake, a green pine tree, a pink cloud, a snowy mountain peak, a fragrant forest, a white heron, a swift deer…., all these beautiful phenomena are your children. Each of them can make you more and more beautiful.

We are your children and we are you at the same time because you are fully present in each of us. Because you are endowed with the Buddha nature, so are your children. We have the ability to awaken and live happily and act responsibly.

We learn to love in your light of wisdom of interbeing and non-discrimination

Marble Cave-ChileChico-Chile

Dear Mother, thanks to our full consciousness, we human beings can discover and recognize our own presence.

We have found our true place in your womb and in the Universe. We know we are very small and insignificant, but our hearts can embrace three thousand worlds. We are aware that our beautiful planet is not the center of the Universe, but only one of its most beautiful phenomena.

We have developed the science and technology. We have discovered the nature of no-birth and no-death, of the non-growth and the non-shrinking of the reality of things. We have found that the one contains everything, that the great is contained within the small, and that every particle of matter contains the whole cosmos.

We have developed powerful telescopes that can capture all types of light that are inaccessible to the human eye, such as infrared light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays and gamma rays. We have placed them in observation stations in space above the impermeable layer of the atmosphere, several thousand kilometers above your surface.

We have seen you, Mother, in all your splendor in an indescribably beautiful universe. We have also seen the Milky Way and the stars hundreds of millions of light years away. Thanks to that we have been able to fully appreciate your beauty, dear Mother, and the wonders within us. Our consciousness is your consciousness, as is that of the entire universe.

The radiant and beautiful cosmos that we see through our telescopes is our consciousness itself and not something distant and beyond our consciousness. Any one of your children who practices deep seeing with full awareness and concentration will attain the wisdom of Beautiful Seeing.

Gifford Pinchot National Forest, Washington, USA

In light of this wisdom, we learn to love you, love our Father, and ourselves. We know that this way of seeing non-dualism and the wisdom of interbeing can free us from discrimination, fear, jealousy, hatred and despair. We promise to pass this deep insight on to future generations. We are no longer so naive to think that we are the rulers of the universe. We are beyond the idea that there is a creator in the image of man.

Several of us have transcended the dualistic view of good and bad and we no longer question the creation of Earth and Heaven. We no longer believe that an old man with a white beard, seated in heaven, controls everything that happens on earth, nor that a goddess on a cloud can help us when we are in danger.

Noble Mother, the ultimate dimension of reality is our nature of no-birth, no-death. As long as we know how to get in touch with her, we will experience peace, happiness, the benefits of no-fear and no-anger. The ultimate dimension of reality does not exist separately from the historical dimension.

When we are in deep contact with something from the historical dimension: a leaf, a flower, a ray of light, a mountain, a river, a bird or our own body, we touch the ultimate dimension at the same time. The latter is being, the reality of what is. It transcends all understanding of being/non-being, matter/consciousness, object/viewer, human/non-human.

The ultimate dimension always shines and in contact with it we feel the influence of well-being and happiness, like the birds rejoicing in the blue sky or the deer in the forest. We are aware that we don’t have to look for the ultimate far away, because that is our true nature, within ourselves at this very moment. By practicing full consciousness, by considering the coherence of everything, by realizing the emptiness and the interbeing, we can immediately come into contact with the ultimate, at any moment.

There are those among your children who have experienced suffering and who are sure that it is because of evil and that happiness is caused by Good. They do not know that suffering and happiness depend on our way of seeing.

Moreover, we experience things that way because our senses are like that. If our senses were shaped differently, we would certainly experience things differently. So, we understand that the kingdom of God and the world of suffering, happiness and suffering depend on our way of viewing things.

Fernando-de-Noronha- Brazil

Ultimate reality transcends all concepts of birth, death, being and non-being. The Buddha can be a person or a star. The buddhas and the great boddhisattvas have been there from the beginning of time and not necessarily in the form of a person, for man is a late appearance on this relatively small planet, so you, Mother.

Like our Father the sun, so your nature is no-birth and no-dying. Because your nature is like this, ours must be like that too. You have manifested yourself as a boddhisattva, in the form of a planet and not in the form of a human being and we thank you for that. Even if we personify you by calling you Mother as we do with our own mother, we know that you are the mother of all phenomena, including the human appearance.

Our nature is no birth and no death. Our life light and our lifespan are infinite

Dear Mother, many people call on Father all the time, without knowing that he is present within themselves and is just above their heads. They don’t know that their nature is Amitabha, the Infinite Light, the Infinite Life. They don’t know that they are children of the Sun, or Father.

Even our teacher Buddha Sakyamuni considered himself a descendant of the sun. We can be in contact with Vader day and night, as a beautiful reality and not as a reference to a simple name. If our Father is the light and the infinite life, then so are we. Every cell of us can radiate light, also into the future.


Dear Mother, many of us who walk around on you long for a pure earth, while not knowing that you are already a beautiful paradise right now. They are unable to see that that pure earth already exists in their own hearts. When our mind is calm and peaceful, the place where we put our feet becomes the pure earth.

We can enjoy it day and night, thanks to this deep awareness, thanks to our practice of being completely in the present moment. We are already on the pure earth, we don’t have to look for her anymore. Mother, you are capable of carrying us for at least another 500 million years. After that you will probably manifest on another planet and we will be another beautiful reality on your surface.

Dear Mother, you have children who are proud to be good mathematicians, gifted architects, gifted artists, but few of them have seen that you are the greatest mathematician, the most accomplished artist, the most ingenious architect. It is enough to look at a flower on a peach tree,

a shell of a crustacean or a bat to recognize this truth. Among us are genius artists; but how could their paintings compare to your works of art, as we see them over the course of the four seasons? How could they paint the rising of the sun as brilliantly, the sunsets as beautiful as yours?

Among us are talented musicians; but how could their compositions equal the beautiful concerts of Earth and Heaven,the majestic music Among us are valiant heroes, who walk in the heat or in the storm, over mountains and tame rivers; but who could have your patience, your perseverance and your ability to embrace? We also have great love stories; but who among us is capable of a love as infinite as yours, which encompasses all beings without making any difference?

Ice Canyon, Greenland

Respected Mother, with every step you take I can get rid of the concepts of matter and spirit. Your beautiful reality transcends them. Matter and mind are just notions, two sides of the same reality.

The pine tree is not only matter, for it carries knowledge within itself. A particle of dust is not only matter which each of its atoms contains intelligence, that is a living reality.

Our own nature is your own nature, which again is the same as that of the Universe. It is the nature of interbeing, or no-birth/no-death, or no-arising/no-dissolving, or no-matter/no-mind, or no-inside/no-out, or no-coming/no- go. You are one of the four fundamental elements, but you contain the other three elements, for you are the result of non-earth elements.

Those four elements also consist of time, space and consciousness. Every step taken in full consciousness reveals to us the interbeing of all these elements as a reality. The Buddha’s nature is in all people, but equally in all beings.

By thinking about the ultimate dimension we can free ourselves from suffering

Dear Mother, you are a great boddhisattva, who gave birth to innumerable buddhas and boddhisattvas. Your heart encompasses the entire cosmos and your understanding illuminates all sides.

Some of your children suffer a lot, they have not yet understood you and they have blamed you for bringing them into the world. But is it possible to let their limited hearts judge your immeasurable love and understanding?

By looking deeply we can free ourselves from all suffering and all resentment. In deep contact with the historical dimension we discover the ultimate dimension and we can better understand what is happening in the historical dimension. In the ultimate dimension there is no birth, no death, no suffering, no happiness, no going and no coming, no right, no wrong. We must learn to look at the phenomenal world from the perspective of the ultimate dimension.

If there were no death, there would be no birth; if there is no suffering, there is no happiness; without bad there cannot possibly be good; without mud the lotus would not grow. The mud and the lotus are not enemies of each other.They depend on each other for their existence and so it is for happiness and suffering, for good and evil.


Because our understanding of good and evil is still dualistic, some of us do not accept you and they blame both you and Heaven. Often with our small hearts we judge your vast heart, Mother, and Heaven’s. Floods, tornadoes, tsunamis, earthquakes are not expressions of your anger or of Vader’s.

They are not punishment, but simply something that must be done to restore balance in the historical dimension. In order to restore balance in nature, some species sometimes have to suffer losses. But if the need for survival is replaced by greed and arrogance, the resulting violence will cause even more drama and disaster.

We have seen that a species that develops too quickly and not according to the normal course of nature causes a lot of damage and hinders the survival of other species. Then causes and circumstances arise, which can lead to great losses, even extinction, for this species, in order to restore the balance between the species.

Those causes and conditions often arise from the species itself. We have learned a lesson: When we commit violent and harmful acts towards our own species and other species, we are violent towards ourselves. And if we know how to protect all beings, we protect ourselves.


We strive to be a good continuation of you and protect you so that you will always be with us

Dear Mother, we all have Buddha nature, because we are your children, whether we are human beings or animals, plants or minerals. We humans often pride ourselves on having a mind, which, however, is only one of its functions alongside the other functions of consciousness, such as the subconscious mind and pure consciousness.

Our minds enable us to recognize our own presence and that of the Universe in the present moment and that of the Universe, but it is still limited by our tendency to distinguish between being and non-being, birth and death, within and outside, individual and collective.

Among your children are those who have practiced, meditated, purified and attained the wisdom of non-separation. They have come into contact with nirvana, with their nature of non-birth and non-death.

You are certainly happy with them, for they are your continuation on the evolutionary path. They have been able to lead others on the path to the wisdom of non-duality to transform all discrimination, fear and despair.

Buddha-on-Lantau-Island-Hong Kong
Buddha-on-Lantau-Island-Hong Kong

You have placed untold numbers of buddhas and great boddhsattvas on the earth.

We sincerely promise you to imitate them, those who are our big brothers and our big sisters on the road of progress. We want to be worthy of being your children and vow to incorporate your beautiful and sublime consciousness.

We know that all is impermanent and without a self, even the buddhas and the boddhisattvas, our Father Sun and you. We understand that your time of life, as well as Vader’s and all species, flowers and leaves included in the ultimate dimension, is limitless and free from birth and death.

But in the historical dimension, we will always protect you, dear Mother, so that you may continue to exist in your present beautiful form, not only in the next 500 million years, but beyond. We want to protect you

We take refuge in you, Mother and you can count on us too

Dear Mother, we, your children, have suffered greatly from natural disasters in the past. We are aware that you suffer with us as well. Sometimes we have turned to you and asked you, “Can we trust you and take refuge in you?”

At that time you did not answer directly. If you then looked at us with eyes full of compassion, you answered us: “Certainly you can find refuge with your mother. I will always be there for you.

But, little children, you must also ask yourself whether your mother can trust and count on you.” Dear Mother, we have spent several sleepless nights because of this koan, which you gave us. Now, dear Mother of ours, we come to you with tearful faces.


Dear Mother, we see the whole Universe in you and you in ourselves. Even if you are the mother of all species and not only of the human species, we can always entrust everything to you in our language, because you can understand us.

You want us to live in such a way that in every moment of daily life we ​​can bring forth the energy of full consciousness, of peace, trustworthiness and love. We promise to do what you want. We are convinced that if we humans continue to generate these healthy energies on a daily basis, we can help alleviate the suffering on Earth, especially that caused by war, poverty and disease.

We will also learn to taste the zest for life, rejoice in your presence and that of the entire Universe. We also want to help reduce natural disasters such as floods, storms, earthquakes, tsunamis. Please, Mother, be patient and have faith in us.

With body and mind all one, I bow in gratitude to you who make life possible on the great planet Earth, the Thatagata Vairocana and Amitabha, the Buddha of light and of eternal life.

With mind and body all one, I bow in gratitude to you, compassionate Mother, the Boddhisattva Pure and Fresh Earth, who nourishes all species, protects them and heals them constantly.

This lecture was delivered by Thich Nhat Hanh during the winter retreat 2011-2012
and translated from French by Janny Beekman. Anke Kooke and Anne van Lissa have made the correction.


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