10. Friedrich Jeckeln
Under the leadership of Friedrich Jeckeln – who was appointed as SS Obergruppenführer – as many as 100,000 people were murdered. Most of the victims were Jews. And people of Slavic descent and Gypsies. One of the mass executions took place in Kamenets-Podolski: 23,600 Jews were murdered here. This happened on August 27 and 28, 1941. Furthermore, Friedrich Jeckeln was partly responsible for the mass murder in Babi Jar. After the war, Jeckeln was captured by the Soviet troops. He pleaded guilty during the trial. He was sentenced to death: on February 3, 1946, he was hanged.
9. Ilse Kocho
Ilse Koch was married to SS Colonel Karl Koch. During World War II, he was in charge of the Buchenwald and Majdanek concentration camps. Although Ilse started as a secretary, she was soon appointed as a security guard. All the prisoners feared her presence. As she rode through the camp on horseback, she lashed out. Furthermore, Ilse Koch was known for a strange hobby: she collected the skin with tattoos of murdered camp inmates. Ultimately, she was sentenced to life in prison for her heinous acts. In 1967 she committed suicide in Aichach prison.
8. Greta Bosel
When you read what Greta Bosel has on her conscience, you wouldn’t think she ever learned to be a nurse. From 1939 to 1943 she worked as a camp guard in Ravensbrück camp. But Bosel wanted more. In 1944 she was engaged in the selection of prisoners; those who could not work were sent to the gas chamber. Or taken to another camp. Although Greta Bosel – along with her husband – managed to escape the invasion of the Russians, she was later arrested by the British. Greta Bosel was executed on May 3, 1947.
7. Joseph Goebbels
photo: Bundesarchiv, Bild 102-17049 / Georg Pahl / CC-BY-SA 3.0
Joseph Goebbels was part of the select group of close associates of Hitler. He was engaged in propaganda. From radio and press to the art and film world, at a certain point he controlled all media. In 1923, Goebbels joined Hitler’s NSDAP. Joseph Goebbels played a large part in propagating the National Socialist message. He had great rhetorical and publicity talents. When it became clear that the Germans would lose the war, Goebbels – together with his wife Magda – committed suicide. Before that, he had killed his children with a hydrocyanic acid capsule.
6. Adolf Eichmann
Although Adolf Eichmann’s activities mainly took place in the office, they were no less gruesome. As secretary of the Wannsee Conference, he was responsible for the logistics of the transport of Jews to the various concentration and extermination camps. He has killed millions of Jews! After World War II, he was captured by the Americans. Eichmann managed to escape. After a few detours he ended up in Argentina. In 1960 he was discovered and brought to Israel. This is where the trial against him took place: he was convicted as a war criminal. In 1962 Adolf Eichmann was hanged.
5. Maria Mandli
Maria Mandl was praised for her intelligence. And for her devotion to the ideals of Adolf Hitler. Her appointment as manager of all Auschwitz camps – where women were housed – was therefore not long in coming. She also led the camps in Hindenburg, Raisko and Lichtewerden. Maria Mandl is blamed for the deaths of more than 500,000 female prisoners. This also includes many children. On August 10, 1945, she was arrested by the United States Army. Mandl was extradited to Poland. Here she was hanged in early 1947.
4. Josef Mengele
In the last phase of the Second World War – during the years 1944 and 1945 – Josef Mengele conducted medical experiments on prisoners. Then you have to think of amputating limbs, removing organs and testing all kinds of medicines. He also exposed people to extreme cold. Or a vacuum treatment. Despite an international manhunt, Josef Mengele managed to evade the authorities. He died in 1979 as a result of a heart attack. His death has been kept a secret for a long time. His body was exhumed in 1985. It was only in 1992 – when his DNA was compared with that of family members – that it was established that it was Josef Mengele.
3. Reinhard Heydrich
Bundesarchiv, Bild 146-1969-054-16 / Hoffmann, Heinrich / CC-BY-SA
Reinhard Heydrich was also called ‘The Butcher of Prague’. And: ‘The blond beast’. From that last nickname you can tell that he was tall and blond. The prototype of the Aryan race. This Nazi leader worked – together with Heinrich Himmler – at the Gestapo. That was the secret service of the SS. Heydrich managed to work his way up to the highest boss. Though he thought he was untouchable, a ride in his open Mercedes proved fatal. On May 27, 1942, he was attacked in the center of Prague. He died after a week of blood poisoning.
2. Heinrich Himmler
Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-R99621/ CC-BY-SA
The first meeting between Heinrich Himmler and Adolf Hitler was in 1923. Both men were strongly in favor of a ‘Greater German Empire for Aryan Germans’. In this world there was no place for Jews and other ‘unclean’ people. Heinrich Himmler was soon assigned the position of Reich propaganda leader. He contributed to the racial politics of the government of Hitler. When it became clear that the Germans would lose the Second World War, Himmler took off. He fled to Scandinavia. He was eventually arrested. He has not been convicted: he committed suicide by biting a cyanide capsule – hidden in a molar.
1. Adolf Hitler
Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-S33882 / CC-BY-SA
All the Nazis mentioned were followers of Adolf Hitler’s theories. He was driven to the bone to avenge the humiliations Germany had to endure after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. Germany had to get more ‘lebensraum’. In that new German Empire there was only room for the Aryan race. Adolf Hitler was determined to exterminate all ‘untermenschen’. His politics has killed more than 6 million.
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